Labour Market Issues on Tourism Management:
Case on Turkish Tourism Sector
Dr. BUHARA ÖNAL
Occupational Health and Safety Institute(İSGÜM)
Ministry of Labour and Social Security
İst. Yolu 14. km 06370 Yenimahalle Ankara
This article includes the labour market issues in tourism sector in Turkey. It is aimed to define infrastructure, planning and investment problems firstly and then to solve these problems.
Tourism sector is raising among the other sectors regarding employment issue recently in Turkey . In this context, coordination with public and private institutons, professional organizations, social partners and NGOs is emphasized to ensure social dialog and peace at work in the tourism sector.
Besides, this study explains in details Turkey Tourism Strategy 2023 which aims to evaluate all aspects of tourism sector particularly employment issue and to improve the conditions in the sector.
Key-Words: labour market in tourism, employment in tourism
Regarding income of tourism sector in the world, USA is the first country and the others are Spain and France respectively. On the other hand, althogh Turkey has an important advantage regarding geographic place, climate and natural sources, it has failed to reach tourism potential of these countries and thus it remained in tenth level.
The main reasons of this failure are determined as inadequacies regarding infrastructure, planning and investment. The principal infrastructure problems are urbanization and transportation problems. Besides, environment problems are important as well.
World Economic Forum explained that Turkey can not compete in this sector because of health, hygene and transport problems and warned Turkey to protect its natural sources more.
However, it can be observed that Turkey would increase the tourism income in the recent years. It has dynamic young population who can be adapted to the tourism and special socio-cultural features, therefore is very attractable tourism center.
Turkish Statistical Institution informed that cost of labourforce in tourism sector increased recently; while cost of average labourforce per month in Turkey became 32%, the same cost in tourism sector became 48%. Despite it is estimated that informel workers are about 1.5 million, it is observed recent numbers of informel workers decreased and the enterprises recorded increased.
Tourism sector contributes country economy as a dynamic sector and its importance in the national income increases. Also it is very important regarding the employment. However the needs of the tourism sector should be defined to improve the sector; the most important one is the need of qualified personel. Since it is a sector which develops according to service qualification, qualification issue is very crucial issue in order to improve it.
2 Problem Formulation
Number of employees in tourism sector has increased as parallel of tourism investments in Turkey. Therefore, training and employment of employees become significant factors in this sector.
Recently training programmes have been improved according to the new legislation related to vocatonal training, so that qualified labourforce would be trained effectively. Professional standards in tourism sector have been published in 2010 and all training programs of personel in this sector were started according to the standards.
Regarding employment problems, approximately 100.000 employees recorded in tourism sector according to the legislation on Social Security. However, estimated number is higher than this, so national budget is affected negatively by informal sector which causes insurance and tax problems. Another important issue on employment is subcontractor, in this case common responsibilites are taken account.
Besides, extension of working hours of employees is another crucial problem for employment in tourism sector
Lastly, no participation of trade unions is one of the most important issue in torism sector in Turkey.
Vocational and technical training should be given according to the needs of labour market in tourism.
Scientific researches for required professions in tourism sector should be conducted in cordination with universities
Employment of labourforce should be increased and the relationship between training and employment should be strenghtened.
Active labourforce politics should be implemented effectively by supporting life long learning.
3 Problem Solution
Projects on improvement of tourism sector should be conducted in coordination with Tourism Ministry.
Integration of transportation should be performed immediately.
Tourism Ministry, local organizations and related parties should be met tocomplete lack of infrastructural problems.
Architectural arrangements should be organized.
Planning should be included a tourism principle which supports economical development, is implemented physically, is community-orientated and sustainable.
To plan tourism investments, economical sustainability, culturel richness, employment quality, security, physical integration, resource effectiveness and environmental protection should be placed.
Strategic planning which includes participative and sustainable development should be realized functionally.
Investments and incentives should be increased in order to support projects as sustainable and applicable.
Burochrathic barriers should be eliminated.
Firms should be documented and accreditated.
Tourism sector is raising among the other sectors regarding employment issue recently in Turkey . In this context, coordination with public and private institutons, professional organizations, social partners and NGOs ensure social dialog and peace at work and more comprehensive researches in the tourism sector.
Turkey Tourism Strategy 2023 aims to evaluate all aspects of tourism sector and to improve the conditions and thus, it should be tried to implement effectively.
Economical and Social Committee which is established according to EU norms should be worked effectively.
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